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Baker’s Percentage & Hydration Levels: How Water Percentage Shapes Your Sourdough’s Crumb

The percentage of water in sourdough bread, often referred to as hydration, plays a crucial role in determining the texture and characteristics of the bread’s crumb. Hydration is expressed as a percentage of the flour’s weight, and it significantly influences the dough’s behavior during mixing, fermentation, and baking.

Calculating The Baker’s Percentage of a Single Ingredient

Here is how you calculate the baker’s percentage for any single ingredient in a bread formula:

Ingredient Percentage = total weight of ingredient / total weight of flour x 100

If you want to know what the hydration of a recipe is (i.e., the baker’s percentage of the water), just take the total weight of the water, divide it by the total weight of the flour, and multiply it by 100. That’ll give you the hydration percentage. And you can do this with any ingredient in the recipe: mix-ins, butter, sugar, oil, etc.

Total Formula

WeightIngredientBaker’s Percentage
300gStrong White Bread Flour80.00%
120gWhole Wheat Bread Flour20.00%
70gSourdough starter16%
Total Flour = 420g

Here’s how different hydration levels affect the sourdough crumb:

Low Hydration (Below 65%)

  • Tighter Crumb Structure: Lower hydration results in a denser, tighter crumb. This is because there’s less moisture to separate the flour particles.
  • Easier to Handle Dough: Doughs with lower hydration are less sticky and easier to shape, making them more manageable, especially for beginners.
  • Milder Flavor Profile: Due to reduced fermentation activity (yeast and bacteria thrive in moist environments), the sourdough might have a milder flavor.

Medium Hydration (65% to 75%)

  • Balanced Crumb: This range is often considered the sweet spot for many sourdough recipes. It results in a crumb that is not too dense but still has a good structure.
  • Moderate Hole Structure: You’ll find more air pockets compared to low hydration, but they are generally smaller and more evenly distributed.
  • Good Flavor Development: There is enough moisture to support active fermentation, leading to a well-developed flavor.

High Hydration (Above 75%)

  • Open, Airy Crumb: High hydration levels lead to a very moist dough, which can create large, irregular air pockets in the crumb. This is often seen in artisanal sourdough bread.
  • Challenging to Handle: High hydration dough is stickier and more challenging to shape. It requires more skill in handling and shaping.
  • Intense Flavor and Texture: The increased fermentation activity in a wetter environment contributes to a more complex and pronounced sourdough flavor. The crust is often more caramelized and crisp.

Very High Hydration (Above 85%)

  • Very Open, Hole-filled Crumb: Extremely high hydration can lead to very large holes, sometimes at the expense of structural integrity.
  • Wet, Sticky Dough: This level of hydration is very challenging to work with and often requires advanced techniques in handling and shaping.
  • Rich, Complex Flavor: The flavors are very well-developed, with a tangy, pronounced sourdough taste and a moist, almost custardy crumb texture.


Choosing the right hydration level depends on your skill level, the type of flour used (different flours absorb water differently), and the desired crumb texture. Experimenting with different hydration percentages is a great way to find your personal preference and understand how water content directly impacts the character of your sourdough bread.